PAS1192-3:2014 is the “specification for information management during the operational phase of assets using BIM” (Opex, or Operational Expenditure). It follows the procedures defined in PAS1192-2 for the design, construction and delivery phases of a project (Capex, or Capital Expenditure) and extends the concepts beyond the handover, at the end of Stage 6 Handover & Closeout, into Stage 7 Operations.
This brief is intended to raise awareness of the salient points, and any areas of possible ambiguity or confusion when dealing with the implementation of BIM Level 2.
PAS1192-3 seeks to address the following basics through “accurate, complete and unambiguous information at asset handover”:
- Reduced costs
- Better awareness of the operational and maintenance needs
- Better decision making based on actual performance
- Dynamic measurement of performance and faults
- Better strategic planning
- Better information quality
It is important to note that PAS1192-3 is focussed on Asset Management (the management of a company’s physical assets / buildings), not Facilities Management (the day-to-day operational management including the physical maintenance and its relationship to people).
Other standards referenced by PAS1192-3 include:
BS ISO 55000 series (Asset Management)
PAS55:2008 (Asset Management)
BS8210:2012 (FM Standards)
BS8587:2012 (FM Standards)
BS8536:2010 (FM Standards)
BS8572:2011 (FM Standards)
For those companies not specifically dealing with operations, i.e. design and even construction firms, the content of these is only really relevant for the relationship of asset data to the design and delivery of construction projects, or in the formulation of EIRs and BEPs.
The rest of the introduction begins to clarify the application of PAS1192-3 and the times it will become relevant (minor or major works to an asset, or as an ongoing concern from a PAS1192-2-delivered project). In cynical terms it begins to set up the “non-specific” nature of much of its text, being “more flexible” and allowing for “unplanned events”.
Minor works are handled under PAS1192-3, defining the update and change management of the Asset Information Model (AIM).
Major works would be passed over to the principles of PAS1192-2, beginning the project sequence from Stage 0 Strategy, defining the EIRs and building or re-working the BIM.
Note: Although an example is given (whether a regulatory body needs to be notified), minor and major works are not defined. It is a responsibility of the organisation to define this.
BIM WEDGE (Fig 3 Page viii)
A BIM wedge specifically for AIM, not to be confused with the BIM wedge in PAS1192-2. The focus in PAS1192-3 for AIM seems to be the medium of communication, not so much the structure of the data:PAS1192-3:2014 is the “specification for information management during the operational phase of assets using BIM” (Opex, or Operational Expenditure). It follows the procedures defined in PAS1192-2 for the design, construction and delivery phases of a project (Capex, or Capital Expenditure) and extends the concepts beyond the handover, at the end of Stage 6 Handover & Closeout, into Stage 7 Operations.
Level 0 = separate sources of data, paper documents.
Level 1 = semi-structured electronic documents
Level 2 = Federated electronic data with some automated connectivity
Level 3 = Cloud-based & fully automated. (Interestingly this may be much more realistic to achieve than Stage 3 BIM)
It is not clear how BS1192 applies to Level 0, as BS1192 covers the structure of electronic data. Although this is inferred rather than specified, to aid understanding the AIM wedge Level 0 is probably easier to understand if taken as unstructured information, or that prepared to an internal standard rather than a nationally-recognised convention.
The use of the AIM acronym for Architectural Information Model is dropped in PAS1192-3 and is referred to as Architectural BIM.
BIM Level 2 “Overarching requirements” (Section 0.4 page ix)
- Roles & responsibilities must be defined
- Information management processes & procedures must be specified
- Risk assessment has to be considered
- Information exchange:
– Method of exchange
Note that none of these specifically refer to electronic information or automated connectivity specifically, although it should be assumed this would be part of the information exchange requirements.
There is no specification of how the AIM should be structured or federated and allows for flexibility (“This PAS is flexible in allowing data and information to be stored within a discrete information model, or to be accessed via links to existing information systems.” Section 0.3 page ix). What is clear from this point on is that the AIM is separate to the BIM and will require re-formatting / re-structuring specifically for asset management uses. This is similar to the purpose of a BIM model: a coordination model may need reworking in order to be used effectively for 4D (construction sequencing) activities, it may be impractical to be built specifically for that purpose due to design or analysis requirements.
Information Management key elements & Acronyms (Fig 4 page ix)
The OIR (Organisational Information Requirements) would be a company-wide document.
The AIR (Asset Information Requirements) is developed from that with specifics related to an individual asset.
The EIR is then developed against the needs of the AIR based on the expectations of PAS1192-2.
The important point to note from this diagram is that the PIM (federated BIMs) only contributes to the AIM. It is not the same thing as the AIM. This is further emphasised throughout the rest of PAS1192-3.
PAS1192-3 does not give requirements for the contents of an OIR or AIR, except to provide Annex A.2 based on PAS55 (superseded by BS ISO 55000, but not yet withdrawn, meaning PAS1192-3 is effectively based on an out of date document…?) highlighting activities which can help to define an OIR. Note Section 4.3 states the OIR should comply with BS ISO 55000, not PAS 55.
Section 4 introduces the need for an IMP (Information Management Process) including asset management from handover operational management (day to day) maintenance, decommissioning activities. Most of Section 4 is general common sense advice rather than a standard or specification.
Section 4 also references the necessity to refer to ISO/IEC 27001 (security requirements) when defining the OIR and AIR but does not specify anything further than that. By this stage PAS1192-3 seems somewhat unfinished, and so “high level” as to be virtually useless for defining the Information Management during Operations that it is supposed to specify.
COBie content should be defined in the AIR.
Asset information is not part of the AIM until it has been authorised and accepted and transferred to the CDE in Published.
CDE and AIM
Section 5 introduces the expectations of asset data in context of the CDE. An AIM is more of a repository of information than it is a physical item.
Figure 8 page 15 could lead to much confusion with regard to PAS1192-2 and the design / construction phases of BIM if not understood in context of asset data. Note 6 explains that the Published area shown represents the AIM, for data verified against the AIR. This is not the same as the design Published area as it only applies after Stage 6 of Capex (refer to entry points on page vi) or Stage 0 should an AIM already exist. It is not, as far as I can understand, saying that all CDE Published data should be verified against the AIR. It is a separate CDE process where the “Federated file-based information exchanges” shown as green “contract” circles in Figures 6 and 10 are the datadrops and “conversions” as required. Nothing in PAS1192-3 should change the information development and approval cycle during the Capex stages, except that the EIR may be better informed with the provision of an AIR.
Sections 6 and 7 are a waste of printed paper, except to add that COBie is not mandatory outside of UK Government projects.
Section 6 (Roles) is particularly disappointing as it is specified that “The roles and responsibilities for information management have to be considered” but no guidance is provided.
For design teams
Annex B is probably the most useful section of PAS1192-3 for the Capex stages – the design and construction teams. These statements are crucial to help understand the development of BIM into PIM into AIM:
“The PIM used as the basis for the AIM should include only the objects or elements representing what has actually been constructed, which shall replace those objects or elements representing design intent.” Section B.1.1.2, page 23.
It is an “As Constructed” model, not the development BIM worked up through to Stage 6. Terminology-wise it would be a separate and specific delivery exercise to create the PIM from the BIM to be checked / approved before it can inform the AIM. To help explain this to our clients, the following simple diagram has proven useful:
This is corroborated now, it would appear, but the proposed wording changes to PAS1192-2, currently out for comment (August 2015).
To be acceptable at Gate 6 the checks that should be carried out are:
a) model suitability check;
b) technical content check;
c) information exchange;
d) drawings extract checks along with any additional documentation that is shared as a co-ordinated package of information.
The process of handover needs to be carefully considered: who is responsible? Make sure this is clear in the BEP & contract.
It is worthwhile noting that Annex B states on numerous occasions that “Shared”, “Published” and “Archived” may be interpreted as the status of a file rather than a physical location to avoid duplication. This makes perfect sense when applied to a document management environment.
In summary, PAS1192-3 has very little direct impact on the design and construction BIM processes, except where these directly inform the EIR. Even in those instances, the implications of converting BIM to AIR should be carefully considered with responsibilities for data population and limits of design responsibility clearly defined in the project BEP. What it does help clarify is the overall context of Level 2 BIM prior to and following the design and construction stages of an asset.